Process Sequence for Black
and White Film
The tank and film are brought to process temperature. The emulsion is completely
soaked with water.
Exposed silver salt is converted to metallic silver. Density and contrast are
determined in the developer.
The stop-bath quickly and evenly ceases development. The emulsion is made acidic
for the fixer.
The fixer removes the unconverted silver salt.
This rinse removes the fixer from the emulsion. Removal of the fixer is
necessary for image permanence.
Wetting agent is an optional step that helps film dry spot-free.